Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Big Leadership Changes Coming Soon!

We are excited to share that Tina Carstens, formerly District Assistant Administrator for Ramsey Washington Metro Watershed District, was recently named the District Administrator, effective December 1, 2014. Congratulations, Tina! We are excited to work with you in your new role.

Tina Carstens, RWMWD's new District Administrator starting in December 2014.

Tina started her career with the City of Savage and joined the Ramsey Washington Metro Watershed District in 2002, working as a Permit Program Coordinator and Water Resources Project Manager. In her most recent role as Assistant Administrator, Tina guided the District through its 4th Generation Watershed Management Plan, providing strategic planning for the Board, staff and stakeholders; project managed the development of the Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategies for the District, and much, much more. Her passion for collaboration, capacity building and effectiveness make her uniquely qualified to step into the role of District Administrator, and we hope you'll join us in congratulating Tina as she moves into her new role. 
Cliff Aichinger, RWMWDs Administrator who will be retiring on December 1st.

Cliff Aichinger, the District Administrator since 1989, recently announced his retirement, effective December 1, 2014. Throughout his career, Cliff has been a strong advocate and leader in education, research, planning and policy. He has built numerous successful partnerships at the state, county, city, business and local levels, which have strengthened our community's effectiveness in protecting the watershed. Cliff's leadership has expanded the capacity and impact of the Ramsey Washington Metro Watershed District, and we are grateful for his visionary leadership and dedication to the District. Thank you, Cliff, and our best wishes for a happy, relaxing retirement!

Administrator's Farewell!!

Cliff Aichinger talking about the office site on a Staff, Board and Citizen Advisory Commission Tour this fall.

After 43 years of professional work as an environmental planner, water resources professional and administrator, I am retiring. I served the Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District for 8 years as a part-time consulting administrator and almost 26 years as the District’s full-time administrator.

We all work because we have to. If we are lucky, we have a career that we enjoy and it’s not just a job. If we are really lucky we have a job where it is a joy to get up early every day and go into work. If we are extremely lucky we have a job where we are actually making a difference in the world and improving our environment and society. I have been fortunate to have had all of this through most of my 43 year career.
RWMWD Board Members in 2011, most of whom had served the District
for decades.

My time with the District has been challenging, interesting, fun and rewarding. I have been fortunate to have a terrific Board of Managers to work with over the years. The fact that the Board has been very stable and driven by policy has led to an extremely positive work environment for all the staff. We have had the ability to work on exciting and challenging projects, studies and programs. And we have made a difference in our environment and people’s lives. Many of our projects have served as demonstrations of new technologies that have been adopted by other Districts and water management organizations.

Over the past couple weeks I have been trying to organize all the files and computer records and the other staff to easily access. I have been trying to preserve my years of historical knowledge so it is available to others. This is a real challenge. All of this effort has reminded me of the past activities, the many contributors to our success, and the growth that has occurred. I may write more about these “reflections” in the coming months.

The District as an organization has grown from a one man operation to a District, with 13 full-time staff, several interns, our own office building and a $7 million budget. We now have 42 completed capital improvements that have provided flood control, water quality improvement and significant habitat improvement throughout our District.

With partners from BARR Engineering, Cliff accepts an award for the Maplewood Mall project.

I’m obviously proud of these accomplishments, but I was just the band leader and not responsible for the music. Early on in my role with the District I did it all, but in the last 15-20 years, my role was that of administering the organization and supervising staff that did all the good hands-on work. I have been proud to be able to help create the vision and inspire the innovative activities of the District.

This will not stop with my departure. I’m happy to say that we have worked hard over the past several years to prepare for this transition and I am confident that the Board, Tina and the rest of the staff are eager for this new phase in the District’s development. There are significant water management challenges in our future, but I believe the Board and the District’s young, energetic and creative professionals are up to the challenge.
I am pleased to say that the Board has selected Tina Carstens, Assistant Administrator, as my replacement. Tina has 12 years’ experience with the District and considerable leadership and management skills. I am confident she will continue the progressive activities of the District. 

Cliff, his lovely wife, and one of their two
happy dogs at Lake Isabel

I am likewise eager to move to a new phase of my life. I have a number of activities planned to fill my time and plans for several long trips. I’m looking forward to the freedom from a daily work schedule and setting my own agenda.

I encourage all our readers to remain committed to the preservation and improvement in our water resources. This is not only important work, but it is rewarding, fun and interesting.

Watch out Colorado, the Aichingers have a lot more free time.

I am grateful for the role I have been able to play and will fondly remember my years with the District.

Cliff Aichinger,
Former Administrator, 
Current full-time husband, father, and grandfather,
Part-time sportsman (golfer, tennis player, hiker, fisherman), woodworker, handyman, and traveler.

Friday, November 14, 2014

Wetland Versus Railroad – Who Decides?


A soon-to-be-expanded rail yard adjacent to Pigs Eye Lake. A new habitat area for geese?

By Sage Passi

After city meetings with local railroad authorities over the past two years, a formal Environmental Review, a public input process and significant local opposition, a decision has been reached in favor of the railroad.

The City of St. Paul has conceded that Canadian Pacific Railway has the authority to bypass their request for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and go forward with plans to fill in six acres of wetland along Pigs Eye Lake and remove about four wooded acres in order to expand its switching yard (Dunn Yard). The plan also will add an 880-foot retaining wall made of steel sheeting, ranging in height from 5½ to nearly 11 feet. Pilings to support the wall would be 23 to 43 feet deep.

Although Pigs Eye Lake is called a lake, it’s actually a large riverine wetland.

Red arrows indicate areas where wetland areas are being filled in to expand the rail lines. Red line shows the approximate extent of the project.

The city had requested an environmental impact statement after reviewing a shorter Environmental Assessment that the railroad submitted in June, but federal jurisdiction over the project trumped this request and the railroad is moving forward without it.

The proposed project area is located along the Mississippi River to the west of Highway 61 near the intersection of Lower Afton Road just to the north and east of Pigs Eye Lake. The city of St. Paul contends that the railroad's plan for this area impedes access to Pigs Eye Lake and conflicts with the Great River Passage master plan that has been years in the making.

To improve the efficiency of its operations, Canadian Pacific (CP) intends to lengthen six existing tracks by expanding them from 7,000 to 10,000 feet to accommodate modern train lengths. They will also be building a new access road adjacent to the extended tracks. CP operates 34 trains per day through St. Paul and half of those stop at Dunn Yard. Freight trains lengths have grown in recent years. The current tracks cannot handle the longer trains and have to be split into shorter sections using a rail hump which results in delays, noisy cars and more use of locomotive and fossil fuels.

Canadian Pacific operates 34 trains a day in St. Paul and half of those stop at
Dunn Yard next to Pigs Eye Lake.

Local Agencies and Neighbors Speak Up But Are They Heard?

Comments from agencies and individuals about the proposed project were collected during a 30 day public review and comment process this spring. A public input meeting was held on April 23 at Battle Creek Recreation Center that drew a list of concerns from multiple entities.

Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District submitted comments that raised “significant concerns with the major wetland and flood plain fill being requested.”

The city cited a number of issues that prompted an expanded Environmental Impact Statement including
  • the potential for significant impact on wetlands and the endangered Blanding turtles 
  • potential stormwater issues 
  • the retaining wall along Pig’s Eye Lake’s potential to be an eyesore 
  • impacts to a large heron and egret rookery nearby 
  • concerns about additional hazardous materials passing through the yard.
The proposed project will fill in six acres of wetland and remove 4 wooded acres next to Pigs Eye Lake.

Both the Minnesota DNR and the city contend that the railroad’s plan conflicts with St. Paul’s Great River Passage master plan, an effort to develop 17 miles of Mississippi riverfront that’s been years in the making. Pigs Eye, the largest “lake” in St. Paul, now is almost inaccessible to the public except by boat. The city envisions linked trails in the regional park surrounding the lake, as well as fishing and paddling access. The railroad’s plan “almost certainly will result in both large cost increases and technical challenges” to achieving that vision,” says the DNR. The railroad has said they would will try to work with the city to try to create suitable access points to the lake.

See this link for more about Pigs Lake area in St. Paul’s Great River Passage Plan (pages 150-151).


Residents who live across the street from the railroad yard also raised issues about excessive diesel fumes and the sound of screeching brakes, idling engines and rail cars slamming together in Dunn Yard.

Dunn Yard.

St. Paul's Order for an Environmental Impact Statement Trumped by the Feds

The railroad appealed the City’s decision to order an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to the Federal Surface Transportation Board (STB), seeking a declaration that state and local permitting are preempted by federal law. In October, after obtaining legal consultation, the City had to concede that they cannot impose environmental review, wetland, or zoning approval requirements on CP. CP is also exempt from complying with Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District’s permitting requirements.

Canadian Pacific Railroad is still awaiting the Army Corp of Engineer permits for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of its project. According to federal law they are required to replace any filled in wetlands at a 2 to one ratio. The railroad is planning to purchase credits from the wetland bank to make up for the impacts expected in the project, rather than creating or restoring wetlands in the area. CP Rail met with Wetland Conservation Act (WCA) officials multiple times to find locations within St. Paul and RWMWD to mitigate the wetland impacts. No suitable areas were identified for mitigation.

They have obtained a National Pollutant Discharge and Elimination System (NPDES) permit from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency to regulate stormwater discharge during construction activity. The NPDES permit is a federal permit but is administered at the state level.

MPCA staff will inspect the erosion and sediment control measures and stormwater BMPs (Best Management Practices) during construction. CP is still planning to construct an underground infiltration trench for stormwater management but the Watershed District will not have jurisdiction to be onsite to inspect during or post construction.

Not Just a Local Issue

This recent issue of control over what happens to a wetland in our Watershed District, like other related projects around the country has been precipitated by the increased use of rail lines, especially for the transport of oil and coal. It raises serious questions about local decision-makers’ ability to provide input and have a say over what happens in our communities.

To hear the perspective of several community leaders on this issue and the challenges they face in seeking local control, check out the Lillie News article by Patrick Larkin in the Maplewood Review on September 29th. It includes comments from District 5 coordinator, Betsy Leach, local city council president Kathy Lantry and her aide, Ellen Biales. The article also mentions Governor Dayton’s recent press release urging the federal government to adopt stronger railway safety standards to improve safety for oil shipments passing through the state via railroads coming from North Dakota.


Stay tuned. It’s definitely going to be a “long haul” working out these kinds of issues.

Thursday, November 13, 2014

A Worthy Collaboration: The Watershed District’s Work in the Schools

Students on their way to educate their neighbors about the issue of storm water run off.
By Tracy Leavenworth

Each year over 800 students and teachers in schools throughout the Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District get involved in watershed-based programs and projects. Through their participation, students engage in the natural world, gain awareness and understanding of issues in the watershed, and make meaningful contributions toward the improvement of water quality and habitats in their neighborhoods. Talk about a Ripple Effect!

Already this fall, over 600 students from 22 classes in 5 schools have participated in education programs and service learning opportunities provided by RWMWD. An 8th grade science teacher at Battle Creek Middle School recently expressed his gratitude for his students’ valuable learning experience following a day of creek monitoring: “…thank you for coming back to the creek and working with our kids… they really got value from the trip! I know several kids didn't even know the creek was there!”

Keeping Tabs on Battle Creek: Water Quality Monitoring with 8th Grade Science Students

Students retrieve water from the creek to use for testing. 

Three hundred 8th grade students from Battle Creek Middle School (BCMS) enjoyed beautiful fall weather as they made their way across the street and down to the creek during one of their science classes last month. Amply prepared from classroom pre-lessons where they practiced performing the tests, students divided into groups and skillfully tested and recorded water clarity, pH, amount of dissolved oxygen, and air and water temperatures. A separate group donned rubber boots and waded into the water with nets, their mission being to collect samples of macro invertebrates living in the creek. Crayfish, damselfly nymphs, water boatmen and water striders were several species discovered and identified by students during the 2-day water quality monitoring experience.

Students analyze the results of their pH test.
BCMS students are fortunate to have such a beautiful water resource at their fingertips. They attain valuable skills, knowledge and connection to the creek and they learn about the issues affecting it. Says Jodi Grote, ELL science teacher at BCMS about her students’ work with the Watershed District, “My students are completely engaged when Tracy [Leavenworth] and Sage [Passi] work with them at the creek for water quality monitoring. Completely engaged.”

Left: Science teacher, Sue Fourniea, supports a student as he prepares to test the clarity of Battle Creek.
Right: Students search for macro invertebrates in the shallows of Battle Creek.

Farnsworth Aerospace Promotes the Role of Plants in Providing Habitat and Watershed Protection

Sherry Brooks' fourth graders investigate the diverse native plants
in their Farnsworth Aerospace garden.  They discover how their long
roots help soak water into the ground and slow down run-off before
it heads to the Mississippi River.

Each year Farnsworth Aerospace students in Sherry Brooks’ science classes learn first-hand about plants and their role in protecting water downstream through their school’s demonstration garden, neighborhood field trips and classroom watershed lessons. The garden was created in 2009 by students and teachers at the school with support from the Watershed District, the school’s PTO, St. Paul Community Education and Ramsey County Master Gardeners. It was designed to mirror the diversity of native plants in the Lake Phalen Restoration Project and to provide continuity for those lessons after the school’s involvement for seven years in this planting project was completed.

The garden is used each year as a valued teaching tool and as a source of native seeds for plants that students grow for many watershed district projects. Brooks uses the garden to teach about habitats, pollinators and birds that migrate through the Phalen Chain of Lakes. Students learn to identify plants, collect and germinate seed, grow seedlings and how to support healthy watersheds through best management practices in the community. Additionally students gain valuable skills and life lessons by helping to maintain the garden.


Teaming Up with Friends of the Mississippi River (FMR) at L'Etoile Du Nord French Immersion (LNFI)

Kate Clayton from Friends of the Mississippi River reviews stenciling procedures with 5th graders.

With FMR’s Kate Clayton leading the way, all three 5th grade classes at LNFI participated in a storm drain stenciling service learning project this fall. This is a very exciting activity for 5th graders! While some students used spray paint to stencil the message “Keep ‘em Clean/ Drains to River” next to storm drains, others hung door knockers on residents’ doors and still others picked up litter. One student was rewarded for his clean-up efforts when he found a 20 dollar bill on the street! Over 100 storm drains were stenciled, and over 50 bags of trash were collected.

More often than not, students found storm drains choked with
debris.  One group discovered a storm drain with so much leaf
litter that had covered the drain for so long, the lower strata had
turned to soil.

A week before the stenciling, Tracy and Kate visited the classrooms to prepare students for their meaningful work. Kate brought in mason jars containing water that had been sitting for several days mixed with various run-off pollutants (grass clippings, leaves, oil, etc.). Students had to guess what the run-off pollutant for each jar was. They were appropriately grossed out by this activity, and were most disturbed by the jar that held cigarette butts!

A student takes a break from stenciling to smile
for the camera.

Tracy led the class in another activity where the students became the watershed throughout the seasons; each student was a body of water (e.g., Lake Phalen) or a part of a body of water (e.g. the headwaters of Gervais Creek). They passed blue beads between them to represent water flow, adjusting their “flow rate” based on the time of year (and whether or not there was a thunderstorm happening…). At one point, run off (non-point source pollution) began to enter the “watershed” (different colored beads were introduced). Students were skeptical and curious about these new beads flowing into them.


During the debriefing session from the activity, students worked to identify each color of bead with the pollutant it could represent (for instance, red beads signify leaves, green beads represent lawn clippings, black beads represent oil, etc.). LeQuyen Tran, LNFI 5th grade teacher had this to say about her students’ experience:

“Students understood much better the signification of the waterways with the beads activity and how nature and human actions affect the pollution of water. This helped make the storm drain stenciling service learning project much more powerful and meaningful to them.”

Students from M. Mang's class celebrate their hard work in the neighborhood.

L'Etoile Du Nord French Immersion 4th Grade: Making Connections

A Farnsworth 4th grader proudly displays her watershed drawing.

Fourth grade classrooms in several schools throughout the Watershed District experienced a Watershed Introduction Lesson this fall. During part of this lesson, each student created a drawing of a watershed, completing the picture with a definition: A watershed is an area of land that drains into a common body of water.

A close up of a couple watershed drawings done by Farnsworth 4th graders.

At LNFI, all three 4th grade classes took their new knowledge about watersheds into the field; they each took a half day walking field trip to Beaver Lake. Their tour of Beaver Lake included stops at naturalist Ann Hutchinson’s LEAP award-winning yard, a storm drain inlet into Beaver Lake, the rain gardens at Achieve Academy, and the belt line interceptor outlet at the south end of Beaver Lake. 
Top left: Outside her home, Maplewood Nature Center naturalist Ann Hutchinson shows students the baby turtle she found near her driveway as she was sweeping.  Bottom left: Students notice some corresponding vein patterns and happily identify their "mystery plant" in Ann's award-winning garden.  Right: Ann puts the students to work removing the fruits from the common milkweed plants in her front yard.

Achieve Language Academy Rain Garden Provides a Shared Learning Experience for Their School Neighbors

Sage Passi (RWMWD) guides students at the Achieve Academy rain gardens, part of the Beaver Lake tour (Beaver Lake can be seen in the background).

A couple of years ago, L’Etoile du Nord fourth graders took the lead in building their own rain garden and helped with a hillside restoration project at their former school grounds on Bush Avenue in east St. Paul. At their new school site where they moved in 2012 there isn’t an appropriate site for similar projects so the Watershed District has been helping them seek out other experiences to help students learn about watershed protection. A nearby school, Achieve Learning Academy has two rain gardens that have become a new teaching ground for L’Etoile du Nord students. It’s across the street from Beaver Lake and near another field trip stop so it makes a perfect landing location to teach about water quality improvements.

Nick Gasho, 4th grade teacher at LNFI, shares this account of his class’s work with the Watershed District:
“Having this partnership with RWMWD is very valuable, as it allows our students to see the connection between some of the concepts they are studying in science, and how they are related to our own, immediate natural environment within blocks of our school. When Tracy came in to our classrooms to share a lesson on watersheds, she did an excellent job laying out for the students exactly what they were going to be doing, which prepared them well for the lesson itself and resulted in very smooth flow. Then to be able to take what they learned in class out "into the field," so to speak, was an outstanding experience. For the students to visit a small body of water (Beaver Lake) within walking distance of our school, and learn how the lake actually flows into the Mississippi and eventually the Gulf of Mexico, was for many of them, a "watershed" moment (no pun intended...well ok, maybe just a little). I am grateful for our work with RWMWD.”

L'Etoile du Nord 4th graders investigate the Beaver Lake outlet that directs water into the Beltline and on to the Mississippi River.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Mystery of the Month - November

A dark green understory in late fall is a tell-tale sign of buckthorn.
By Carole Gernes, Ramsey Conservation District, Cooperative Weed Management Area Program Coordinator

Driving along scenic routes to check fall colors this year was incredible! Clear days and crisp nights with minimal rain kept the orange, yellow and red leaves visible for a beautiful extended fall. Did you notice areas where the understory would just not turn color? A dark green band of shrubs or small trees in the understory could be bad news – BUCKTHORN!

Woods in Battle Creek Park 1960.  Note the absence of buckthorn in the
understory area on the hillside.
Some of us remember what our forests looked like before the buckthorn invasion. Many of us growing up in the metro area can’t remember seeing woods without buckthorn, or have never experienced a woods without buckthorn. Not that long ago, fall offered unobstructed views of the leafy forest floor, around corners and outlines of hillsides and picturesque landscapes.


 Unfortunately, two invasive buckthorn species now call Minnesota “home.” Common or European buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica, and glossy buckthorn, Frangula alnus, are not species we can eradicate from the state, but there is good news. More and more information has come to light about steps we can take to keep these pests under control.


Buckthorn Busting Basics


What is buckthorn and what does it look like? Common buckthorn is a chameleon of the shrub world. Here are some tips to help you identify it:
  • The leaves can vary in size, but always have a few curving (not straight) veins and rounded teeth on the edge of the leaves 
  • Leaves and buds can vary in their arrangement on branches. Some may be opposite (straight across from each other), sub opposite (almost straight across from each other) or alternate (staggered). Common buckthorn is unique in our area. Sometimes all three of these arrangements may be found on the same plant. 
  • Buds are dark brown to black and hug the twig. When opposite from each other the two buds combined resemble the bottom of a deer hoof. 
  • Often, there is a short sharp thorn at the tip of the twig. These may fall off or continue to grow over the years. 
  • In the fall, common buckthorn leaves stay green and on the shrub, long after other trees and shrubs have turned color or lost their leaves. Waiting until fall colors are strong will help prevent accidental removal of beneficial shrubs.

Common buckthorn. Left: How common buckthorn got its name: when buds are opposite they resemble the bottom of a deer hoof. Middle: On the same branch we may also see alternate leaves or buds. Right: A small thorn is sometimes present on common buckthorn branch tips.

The Minnesota DNR has a great brochure to help you identify both species of invasive buckthorn:


Are there beneficial plants that look like buckthorn? There are beneficial native shrubs and tree saplings that can be mistaken for common buckthorn, such as dogwoods and cherries.

  • Dogwood leaves have curving veins, like common buckthorn. However, the leaves never have serrated edges. 
  • Cherry and plum leaves do have serrated edges, but the “teeth” are sharp and not rounded. The leaf veins are more numerous and not curved like those on common buckthorn leaves. 
  • Cherries and plums may have small, comma-shaped insect galls that grow up from the top of the leaf surface. If you see these, the plant is not a buckthorn. 
  • Cherries may also have a black knot fungus growing on the branches. This fungus does not grow on buckthorn. 
  • Cherries and plum leaves and buds are always in the alternate, staggered arrangement.
Glossy buckthorn is more difficult to identify. Its leaves will turn color and fall like our native trees. Identifying it may take a bit of practice or assistance. Be aware; glossy buckthorn saplings have white spots on smooth reddish bark, just like cherry saplings. Fortunately, the leaves do not have teeth like cherries, are widest toward the end and attach to the branch with pinkish petioles. Do not remove unless you are 100% sure it is glossy buckthorn.

Glossy buckthorn, Frangula alnus.

How can I protect native trees and shrubs? If you aren’t certain whether a shrub is buckthorn, do not remove it. Wait until fall when identification is easiest. When removing, flag cherries, plums, dogwoods and native tree saplings so you don’t accidentally remove them.

How can I get rid of buckthorn? Are some methods better than others?

  • Pulling is no longer recommended. Although people have pulled buckthorn for many years, the Minnesota DNR Trails managers and others have noticed quick colonization by garlic mustard and other invasive plants/weeds after pulling. They no longer pull buckthorn. University of Minnesota researchers have confirmed this observation with a formal study, http://www.mipn.org/UMISC-2014/Tuesday/InvasivePlantEcology_Roth_Tues_210pm.pdf. Although plants fill in the void that pulling buckthorn leaves behind, areas where soil has been disturbed are more likely to be invaded with new weeds and buckthorn seedlings in following years. Using herbicides to remove buckthorn leads to quicker establishment of a rich native plant understory.  
  • Cutting and treating stumps with specific herbicides is less likely to be followed by new invasions. Be sure to check the concentration of active ingredient in the lower right corner of the front herbicide label. Triclopyr should be 8 or 8.8% active ingredient. Glyphosate should be at least 25%. 
  • Follow the label directions, with one exception: do not drill holes in the stump and pour in herbicide. Applying herbicide to the orange/yellow layer of fiber, just under the thin bark is sufficient to kill the plant. Buckthorn has very dense, hard wood. Herbicide poured into holes in the heartwood will not move to the root to kill the shrub. 
  • Leaving the stumps and roots in place will also prevent soil erosion until new plantings become established.
The U of MN's buckthorn research and the DNR recommend not using buckthorn wrenches because the soil is more easily disturbed and is likely to be invaded with new weeds and buckthorn seedlings.

What should I plant after my buckthorn is gone? Areas that were infested with buckthorn may be bare after removal. There are many attractive, native shrubs and perennials which provide screening for privacy, nectar for pollinators and add interest to your landscape. 

  • RWMWD Checklist of Common Invasive Plant Species and Replacements Brochure [link here]
  • Information on planting to help support pollinators can be found on the Minnesota Board of Soil and Water Resources website: http://www.bwsr.state.mn.us/practices/pollinator/pollinator-tool4.pdf . Avoid planting shrubs or perennials that have been treated with systemic insecticides. 
  • Most non-native, ornamental plants aren’t invasive, but it doesn’t hurt to be pro-active. If you are interested in planting a non-native plant, check online to make sure it hasn't become invasive in other areas of the U.S. A good source of information is http://www.invasive.org/weedcd/
  • Cost share programs for shoreline or native plant restorations may be available to help. Contact your local watershed district or county conservation district for more information. If your site is in Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District, check out our BMP Incentive Program at this link on our website.